- Tag: New Testament Apocrypha
- Doubts Concerning the Coins Over the Eyes
- Questions et réponses Vol. 6: Le retour de Christ (French)
If the executioners did not want the cruciaris, or victim, to die too quickly, they limited the amount of lashes administered.
The number of lashes also depended on the person and their crime. Pilate ordered that Jesus be scourged in an extreme manner in an attempt to appease the mob.
Tag: New Testament Apocrypha
When they were not satisfied and demanded the release of Barabbas, he pronounced sentence. Jesus would have been stripped naked and shackled by His wrists to a low column so that He would be in a bent-over position. One or more soldiers would be assigned to deliver the blows from the flagrum. Standing beside the victim, he would strike in an arc-like fashion across the exposed back. The bits of metal would dig deep into the flesh, ripping small blood vessels, nerves, muscle, and skin. The injuries sustained during scourging were extensive.
Blows to the upper back and rib area caused rib fractures, severe bruising in the lungs, bleeding into the chest cavity and partial or complete pneumothorax puncture wound to the lung causing it to collapse. As much as millilitres of blood could be lost. The victim would periodically vomit, experience tremors and seizures, and have bouts of fainting.
Each excruciating strike would elicit shrieks of pain. The victim would be diaphoretic profusely sweating and exhausted, his flesh mangled and ripped, and would crave water because of the loss of fluid from bleeding and diaphoresis. The steady loss of fluid would initiate hypovolemic shock while a slow, steady accumulation of fluid in the injured lungs pleural effusion would make breathing difficult. Fractured ribs would make breathing painful and the victim would only be able to take short, shallow breaths. The plumbatae at the end of the leather strips would lacerate the liver and maybe the spleen.
The pain and brutality of the torture put Him in early traumatic or injury shock. He was also in early hypovolemic shock because of pleural effusion, hematidrosis, hemorrhaging from His wounds, vomiting, and diaphoresis. Michael Evanari, Professor of Botany at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, has opined that the Syrian Christ Thorn, which was available in Jerusalem, was the plant most likely to be used for the crown of thorns.
Both of these plants have sharp, closely spaced thorns and can be easily plaited into a cap. The crown was not a wreath as is typically believed. The pattern of blood flow in the head area on the shroud and subsequent experiments by Zugibe attest to this. The hair in the frontal image suggests marked saturation with dried blood, causing the hair to remain on both sides of the face.
The trigeminal nerve, also known as the fifth cranial nerve, runs through the face, eyes, nose, mouth, and jaws. Irritation of this nerve by the crown of thorns would have caused a condition called trigeminal neuralgia or tic douloureux. This condition causes severe facial pain that may be triggered by light touch, swallowing, eating, talking, temperature changes, and exposure to wind. Stabbing pain radiates around the eyes, over the forehead, the upper lip, nose, cheek, the side of the tongue and the lower lip.
Spasmodic episodes of stabbing, lancinating, and explosive pain are often more agonizing during times of fatigue or tension. It is said to be the worst pain that anyone can experience.
As the soldiers struck Jesus on His head with reeds, He would have felt excruciating pains across His face and deep into His ears, much like sensations from a hot poker or electric shock. These pains would have been felt all the way to Calvary and while on the Cross. As He walked and fell, as He was pushed and shoved, as He moved any part of His face, and as the slightest breeze touched His face, new waves of intense pain would have been triggered.
The pain would have intensified His state of traumatic shock. The thorns would have cut into the large supply of blood vessels in the head area.
Doubts Concerning the Coins Over the Eyes
Jesus would have bled profusely, contributing to increasing hypovolemic shock. He would have been growing increasingly weak and light-headed. As well, He would have bouts of vomiting, shortness of breath, and unsteadiness as hypovolemic and traumatic shock intensified. How could a humiliated, weakened, beaten, bleeding, mangled mess of a man already suffering from breathing difficulties, as well as hypovolemic and traumatic shock, carry a t-shaped cross that weighed between and pounds?
The short answer is that He did not. Jesus carried the crosspiece. At Calvary He was nailed to the crosspiece, which was then placed into a rectangular notch carved into the tip of the stipes. Did Jesus carry the crosspiece over one shoulder or over both shoulders? Sindologists individuals who study the Shroud of Turin interpret two images on the back of the shroud as evidence He carried the cross over both shoulders as it was tied to His wrists.
We know that Jesus fell at least three times on the way to Calvary. His condition was serious. Each time He fell, it would have been more difficult to get up. His executioners needed to keep Him alive until the crucifixion and so made Simon of Cyrene help carry the crosspiece. More recently, Jews were crucified in the Dachau Concentration Camp. In Sudan and Egypt, there are reports of Christians being crucified by Muslim extremists.
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Teams of well-trained Roman soldiers carried out the crucifixions. Each team consisted of the exactor mortis or centurion, and four soldiers called the quaternio. Crucifixions were carried out in full view outside the city walls of Jerusalem in a hilly region called Calvary or Golgotha. It was also easier to remove the victim from a short cross after death. Shorter crosses also made it easier for wild animals to finish off victims. The nails used in crucifixion were made of iron. By the time He arrived at Calvary, Jesus was in exquisite pain, struggling to breathe and suffering from blood and fluid loss.
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One of the executioners threw Him to the ground and then made Him lie on His back. One other executioner pressed down on His chest, another held Him down by His legs, while a third soldier stretched His arms one at a time across the patibulum and nailed down His hands. The pain from the nails would have been like having hot pokers driven through His hands, causing bolts of radiating pain up His arm. He would have screamed out in agony. Then, two members of the execution squad likely manned the ends of the crosspiece while a third member grasped Jesus around the waist, getting Him to His feet.
They backed Him up to the upright onto a platform device, and then two men lifted Him by the legs and inserted the crosspiece into a mortice on the top of the upright. They then bent His knees until His feet were flush to the cross and nailed His feet to the upright. Again, Jesus would likely have screamed out in agony after each foot was nailed. In the book A Doctor at Calvary , Dr. However, Zugibe, who holds a Ph. When the nail is hammered here, the exit wound on the other side of the hand matches the wound image on the shroud.
The median nerve runs through the thenar furrow where the nail was hammered. A nail through this area would cause a burning, searing pain so severe that the slightest touch, movement, or gentle breeze felt here is agonizing. This condition, known as causalgia, intensifies with an increase in temperature. He came to be a witness—a martyr—to the truth, and to send forth others to be witnesses and martyrs to the same truth, through the Holy Spirit, who should guide them into all truth.
Such was His kingdom; such the power by which it was to rule. It was not of this world: it possessed neither land nor treasury, neither senate nor legions, neither consuls nor procurators; but it was to extend its sceptre over all the kingdoms of the earth. Every one that is of the truth heareth my voice. Who are its subjects, and what its power over them?
Questions et réponses Vol. 6: Le retour de Christ (French)
The thought is familiar to us from the earlier chapters of the Gospel. Messiah the Prince; art thou he? Dost thou call thyself so, and wouldest thou be thought so?
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Christ answered this question with another; not for evasion, but that Pilate might consider what he did. He never took upon him any earthly power, never were any traitorous principles or practices laid to him. Christ gave an account of the nature of his kingdom. Its nature is not worldly; it is a kingdom within men, set up in their hearts and consciences; its riches spiritual, its power spiritual, and it glory within.
Its supports are not worldly; its weapons are spiritual; it needed not, nor used, force to maintain and advance it, nor opposed any kingdom but that of sin and Satan. Its object and design are not worldly.