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Section Highlights
Contents:
  1. Section Highlights
  2. Greetings from Earth! NASA Spacecraft to Carry Message for Aliens
  3. Mission and Message to Earth - Google Buku
  4. Greetings to the Universe in 55 Different Languages
  5. The purpose and mission of Jesus
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40 years ago, NASA sent a message to aliens — here's what it says

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When we can, we dispatch your pre order on the evening before the product is released. Depending on your delivery address, these orders can be delivered the very next day. As communication signals travel at the speed of light, this means that it can take between 3 and 22 minutes for the information to reach the other end, so a phone call would not be practical. Fortunately, there would be no limitations to email, texting or 'WhatsApping' with the Mars residents.

It'll just take at least 6 minutes for you to get your reply. Both voicemail and video messages are also easily workable options.

Greetings from Earth! NASA Spacecraft to Carry Message for Aliens

The Mars Science Laboratory spacecraft commmunicates with controllers on the ground by radio signals. Ground controllers know the frequency of the signal that is emitted from the spacecraft. However, since the spacecraft is moving away from or towards us, this frequency is being Doppler shifted to a different frequency.

So, engineers or, more accurately, computers compare the received frequency with the emitted frequency to get the Doppler shift. It's then straightforward to find the velocity that would cause the resulting Doppler shift.

Ranging is sending a code to the spacecraft, having the spacecraft receive that code and immediately send it back out the spacecraft's own antenna, and finally receiving that code back on Earth. The time between sending the code and receiving the code, minus the delay in turning the signal around on the spacecraft, is twice the light time to the spacecraft.

So that time, divided by two and multiplied by the speed of light, is the distance from the DSN station to the spacecraft. This distance is accurate to about five to ten meters feet , even though the spacecraft may be billion meters away!

Mission and Message to Earth - Google Buku

Delta DOR is similar to ranging, but it also takes in a third signal from a naturally occurring radio source in space, such as a quasar, and this additional source helps scientists and engineers gain a more accurate location of the spacecraft. Quasars are a few billion light years away and a few billion years in the past. Quasars are used as extremely well known positions in the sky to provide a calibration for the same measurements made within a few tens of minutes of each other on a spacecraft.

Being able to do quasar and spacecraft ranging near the same time and subtracting the answers cancels a lot of errors that are the same in both measurements from the atmosphere and the equipment.

The "ranging" is not really ranging, but differenced ranging. What is measured is the difference in the distance to the source between two complexes on Earth for example, Goldstone and Madrid or Goldstone and Canberra. From that an angle in the sky can be determined relative to the stations. The angle for the quasar is subtracted from the angle of the spacecraft, giving the angular separation of the quasar and the spacecraft.

Greetings to the Universe in 55 Different Languages

That angle is accurate to about five to ten nanoradians, which means when the spacecraft is near Mars, say million kilometers away, it can determine the position of the spacecraft to within one kilometer 0. During the entry, descent and landing phase of the Mars Exploration Rover mission, engineers listened anxiously for distinct tones that indicated when steps in the process were activated; one sound indicated the parachute deployed, while another signaled that the airbags had inflated.

These sounds were a series of basic, special individual radio tones. The Mars Science Laboratory spacecraft transmitted in X-band during its entry, descent and landing process, which was the expected path for confirmation of the initial events in the process.

The purpose and mission of Jesus

Due to signal strength constraints, these transmissions were simple tones, comparable to semaphore codes, rather than full telemetry. The Deep Space Network listened for these direct-to-Earth transmissions. By then, the bent-pipe relay via Odyssey had begun. Not only does the rover send messages directly to the DSN stations, but it is also able to uplink information to other spacecraft orbiting Mars, utilizing mainly the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter and Mars Odyssey if necessary spacecraft as messengers that pass along news to Earth for the rover.